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This section of the website will gather together a range of links to relevant online papers and publications specifically published or generated by the Met4Tech team including any Research Papers that we have published, Policy Papers and Other Papers that we consider relevant to the circular economy for technology metals.

Research Papers

Research Papers

Roadmap for a sustainable circular economy in lithium-ion and future battery technologies. (2023) Journal of Physics Energy 5 021501. Gavin D J Harper et al.  DOI 10.1088/2515-7655/acaa57

Decarbonising the automotive sector: a primary raw material perspective on targets and timescales (2022). Miner Econ. Petavratzi, E., Gunn, G. doi: 10.1007/s13563-022-00334-2

Building energy retrofit-as-a-service: a Total Value of Ownership assessment methodology to support whole life-cycle building circularity and decarbonisation. (2022). Azcarate-Aguerre JF, Conci M, Zils M, Hopkinson P, Klein T. doi: 10.1080/01446193.2022.2094434

Roadmap for a sustainable circular economy in lithium-ion and future battery technologies: legal and regulatory issues’ (2022). Journal of Physics Energy Ahuja J, Cavoski A, Lee R.

Deep Eutectic Solvents and their application in electrochemistry (2022) Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 2022, 100649, Journal. Abbot A et al. doi: 10.1016/j.cogsc.2022.100649

The role of industrial actors in the circular economy for critical raw materials: a framework with case studies across a range of industries. (2022). Mineral Economics . Alexander Cimprich, Steven B. Young, Dieuwertje Schrijvers, Anthony Y. Ku, Christian Hagelüken, Patrice Christmann, Roderick Eggert, Komal Habib, Atsufumi Hirohata, Alan J. Hurd, Min-Ha Lee, David Peck, Evi Petavratzi, Luis A. Tercero Espinoza, Patrick Wäger & Alessandra Hool. doi: 10.1007/s13563-022-00304-8

Calcium chloride-based systems for metal electrodeposition (2022). Electrochimica Acta. Hartley J, Allen J, Meierl J, Schmidt A, Krossing I, Abbott A. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2021.139560

Catalytic dissolution of metals from printed circuit board using a calcium chloride-based deep eutectic solvent. (2022). Green Chemistry. Marin Rivera R, Zante G, Hartley J, Ryder K, Abbott A. doi: 10.1039/d1gc04694b

Debondable adhesives and their use in recycling. (2022). Green Chemistry, (1). Mulcahy K, Kilpatrick A, Harper G, Walton A, Abbott A. doi: 10.1039/d1gc03306a

The Sustainable Materials Roadmap. (2022). Journal of Physics: Material. M-M Titirici, S Baird, T Sparks, S M. Yang, A Brandt-Talbot, O Hosseinaei, D P Harper, R Parker, S Vignolini, L Berglund, Y Li, H-L Gao, L-B Mao, S Yu, N Díez, G Alvarez.ferrero, M S Solis, P Szilagyi, C Stubbs, J Worch, Y Huang, C Luscombe, K-y Lee, H Luo, J Platts, D Tiwari, D Kovalevskiy, D Fermin, H Au, H Alptekin, M C Ribadeneyra, V Ting, T-P Fellinger, J Barrio-hermida, O Westhead, C Roy, I Stephens, S A Nicolae, S Sarma, R Oates, C G Wang, Z Li, X J Loh, R J Myers, N Heeren, A Grégoire, C Périssé, X Zhao, Y Vodovotz, B Earley, G Finnveden, A Björklund, G Harper, A Walton and P A Anderson doi: 10.1088/2515-7639/ac4ee5

Steering extended producer responsibility for electric vehicle batteries. (2021) Environmental Law Review, (2). Dawson L, Ahuja J, Lee R. doi: 10.1177/14614529211006069

Global implications of the EU battery regulation. (2021) Science, (6553), Melin H, Rajaeifar M, Ku A, Kendall A, Harper G, Heidrich O. doi: 10.1126/science.abh1416

Policy Papers

Policy Papers


NEW! Regulatory Study Findings: main themes from qualitative analysis of interview data (2023) A Cavoski, J Ahjua and R Lee

Review of UK Critical Minerals Strategy. (2022) R Lee and Lexis-Nexis

Court supervision of air pollution safeguards (2022) p 22 A Cavoski and R Lee

Transition to green ammonia: imperative for climate change goals (2022) p 39 J Ahuja and M Ravi

South West England’s Technology Metal Resources: Regional Economic Development and National Security of Supply (2022) F Wall, E Marquis, K Hudson-Edwards, A Cavoski, R Lee and J Ahuja



Ensuring a Circular Economy Roadmap for technology metals (2022) The Innovation Platform, Issue 12. pp 136- 137 Pettit C., Wall F., Petavratzi E., Cavoski A., and Lee R.

The Circular Economy: A View from the Front. (2022) Wall F. et al. ​

The Trans-shipment of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles Under the Basel Convention (2020) Environmental Law and Management Vol 32​. A Bauckham and E Beardsley (under the supervision of R Lee and J Ahuja

Net-zero Solutions and Research Priorities in the 2020s (2021)

Ainalis, Daniel and Bardhan, Ronita and Bell, Keith and Cebon, David and Czerniak, Mike and Farmer, J. Doyne and Fitzgerland, Shaun and Galkowski, Krzysztof and Grimshaw, Samuel and Harper, Gavin and Hunt, Hugh and Jennings, Neil and Keshav, Srinivasan and Mackie, Erik and Maroto-Valer, Mercedes and Michalopoulou, Eleni and Reay, David and Seddon, Nathalie and Smith, Stephen M. and Smith, Tristan and Simpson, Kate and Stranks, Samuel D. and Tennyson, Elizabeth M. and Uekert, Taylor and Vera-Morales, Maria and Woodcock, James

Addressing the Climate Challenge (2021) 

Acton, Joe ; Anderson, Paul ; Andres, Lauren ; Angus, Michael ; Amor, Peter ; Arrowsmith, Jane (Editor) ; Asmelash, Henok ; Bartington, Suzanne (Editor) ; Bengtsson, Fredrik ; Bhullar, Lovleen ; Bloss, William ; Bonet, Berta ; Börner, Susanne ; O Bonsu, Nana ; Bryson, John R. ; Burns, Victoria ; Burrows, Alexander ; Calvert, Charles ; Cassidy, Nigel ; Cavoski, Aleksandra ; Chadyiwa, Martha ; Chapman, Henry ; Chapman, Lee ; Cockram, Matthew ; Degendardt, Lisa ; Dickinson, David ; Ding, Yulong ; Dobrzynski, Dion ; Dolo, Mapaseka ; Dora, John ; Ercolani, Marco ; Ersoy, Aksel ; Farag, Hisham ; Ferranti, Emma ; Fisher, Rachel ; Freer, Martin ; Goldmann, Nicola ; Goode, Charles Edward ; Greenham, Sarah ; Gulati, Steve ; Hadfield-Hill, Sophie ; Harper, Gavin ; Hegerl, Gabi ; Hillmansen, Stuart ; Holmes, John ; Huang, Jinhui Jeanne ; Huser, Camille ; Jackson, Rob ; Jaroszweski, David ; Jefferson, Ian ; Johnson, Jack ; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat ; Kelly-Akinnuoye, Fisola ; Kettles, Graeme ; Kraftl, Peter ; Krause, Stefan ; Leckebusch, Gregor C. ; Lee, Robert ; Lockwood, Beck (Editor) ; Lohse, Johannes ; Luna Diez, Estrella ; Lynch, Iseult (Editor) ; MacKenzie, Rob ; Maddison, David ; Makepeace, Joshua ; Mann, Victoria ; Marino, Rodrigo ; Mavronicola, Natasa ; McDonald, Megan ; McGowan, Kate (Editor) ; Metje, Nicole ; Ng, Kelvin ; Nicol, Jane ; O’Sullivan, Cliona ; Phalkey, Neelambari ; Prestwood, Emily ; Pyatt, Nick ; Quinn, Andrew ; Radcliffe, Jonathan (Editor) ; Ravi, Manoj ; Reardon, Louise ; Reeder, Tim ; O’Regan, Paul ; Remedios, Louisa ; Roberts, Jon ; Rogers, Chris ; Rungskunroch, Panrawee ; van Schaik, Willem ; Swan, Jeremy (Editor) ; Thomson, Ian ; Toft, Helen (Editor) ; Tong, Jiadong ; Botello Villagrana, Fernando ; Walton, Allan ; Wason, Ceara (Editor) ; Weir, Catherine ; Wood, Ruth ; Zhong, Jian.  University of Birmingham.

The Geopolitics of Cobalt (2021) American Affairs, V(4), pp. 62-79. Harper, G.D.J.