Home > Resources > Publications
Research Papers

Research Papers

Estimation of critical metal consumption in household electrical and electronic equipment in the UK, 2011 – 2020 (2023) Resources, Conservation & Recycling 197, 107084. Xiaocheng Hu, Xiaoyu Yan

Targeted recovery of metals from Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) using chloride brines and ultrasound. (2023) RSC Sustainability, 2023, 1, 1025-1034. G. Zante, E. Daskalopoulou, C. E. Elgar, R. Marin Rivera, J. Hartley, K. Simpson, R. Tuley, J. Kettle and A. P. Abbott,

Anion effect on the redox properties of copper ions in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (2023) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2023,25, 4854-4861. E. Daskalopoulou, J. M. Hartley, R. Marin Rivera G. Zante and A P. Abbott

A novel method for extracting metals from asteroids using non-aqueous deep eutectic solvents (2023) Scientific Reports 2023. 13, 16960. R. M. Rivera, P. Bird, G. R.T. Jenkin, A. P. Abbott.

Concentrated Ionic Fluids: Is There a Difference Between Chloride‐Based Brines and Deep Eutectic Solvents? (2023) Angewandte Chemie e202311140. G. Zante, C. E Elgar, K. George, A. P Abbott, J. M Hartley,

Roadmap for a sustainable circular economy in lithium-ion and future battery technologies. (2023) Journal of Physics Energy 5 021501. Gavin D J Harper et al.  DOI 10.1088/2515-7655/acaa57

Decarbonising the automotive sector: a primary raw material perspective on targets and timescales (2022). Miner Econ. Petavratzi, E., Gunn, G. doi: 10.1007/s13563-022-00334-2

Building energy retrofit-as-a-service: a Total Value of Ownership assessment methodology to support whole life-cycle building circularity and decarbonisation. (2022). Azcarate-Aguerre JF, Conci M, Zils M, Hopkinson P, Klein T. doi: 10.1080/01446193.2022.2094434

Roadmap for a sustainable circular economy in lithium-ion and future battery technologies: legal and regulatory issues’ (2022). Journal of Physics Energy Ahuja J, Cavoski A, Lee R.

Deep Eutectic Solvents and their application in electrochemistry (2022) Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 2022, 100649, Journal. Abbot A et al. doi: 10.1016/j.cogsc.2022.100649

The role of industrial actors in the circular economy for critical raw materials: a framework with case studies across a range of industries. (2022). Mineral Economics . Alexander Cimprich, Steven B. Young, Dieuwertje Schrijvers, Anthony Y. Ku, Christian Hagelüken, Patrice Christmann, Roderick Eggert, Komal Habib, Atsufumi Hirohata, Alan J. Hurd, Min-Ha Lee, David Peck, Evi Petavratzi, Luis A. Tercero Espinoza, Patrick Wäger & Alessandra Hool. doi: 10.1007/s13563-022-00304-8

Calcium chloride-based systems for metal electrodeposition (2022). Electrochimica Acta. Hartley J, Allen J, Meierl J, Schmidt A, Krossing I, Abbott A. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2021.139560

Catalytic dissolution of metals from printed circuit board using a calcium chloride-based deep eutectic solvent. (2022). Green Chemistry. Marin Rivera R, Zante G, Hartley J, Ryder K, Abbott A. doi: 10.1039/d1gc04694b

Debondable adhesives and their use in recycling. (2022). Green Chemistry, (1). Mulcahy K, Kilpatrick A, Harper G, Walton A, Abbott A. doi: 10.1039/d1gc03306a

The Sustainable Materials Roadmap. (2022). Journal of Physics: Material. M-M Titirici, S Baird, T Sparks, S M. Yang, A Brandt-Talbot, O Hosseinaei, D P Harper, R Parker, S Vignolini, L Berglund, Y Li, H-L Gao, L-B Mao, S Yu, N Díez, G Alvarez.ferrero, M S Solis, P Szilagyi, C Stubbs, J Worch, Y Huang, C Luscombe, K-y Lee, H Luo, J Platts, D Tiwari, D Kovalevskiy, D Fermin, H Au, H Alptekin, M C Ribadeneyra, V Ting, T-P Fellinger, J Barrio-hermida, O Westhead, C Roy, I Stephens, S A Nicolae, S Sarma, R Oates, C G Wang, Z Li, X J Loh, R J Myers, N Heeren, A Grégoire, C Périssé, X Zhao, Y Vodovotz, B Earley, G Finnveden, A Björklund, G Harper, A Walton and P A Anderson doi: 10.1088/2515-7639/ac4ee5

Steering extended producer responsibility for electric vehicle batteries. (2021) Environmental Law Review, (2). Dawson L, Ahuja J, Lee R. doi: 10.1177/14614529211006069

Global implications of the EU battery regulation. (2021) Science, (6553), Melin H, Rajaeifar M, Ku A, Kendall A, Harper G, Heidrich O. doi: 10.1126/science.abh1416

Policy Papers

Policy Papers


NEW! Regulatory Study Findings: main themes from qualitative analysis of interview data (2023) A Cavoski, J Ahjua and R Lee

Review of UK Critical Minerals Strategy. (2022) R Lee and Lexis-Nexis

Court supervision of air pollution safeguards (2022) p 22 A Cavoski and R Lee

Transition to green ammonia: imperative for climate change goals (2022) p 39 J Ahuja and M Ravi

South West England’s Technology Metal Resources: Regional Economic Development and National Security of Supply (2022) F Wall, E Marquis, K Hudson-Edwards, A Cavoski, R Lee and J Ahuja

Policy Responses

Evidence presented on the End of Life for Electric Vehicles to the UK House of Lords Environment & Climate Change Committee – Oct 2023

Met4Tech joint response to Department for Business and Trades Call for Evidence on the UK Battery Strategy – Sept 2023

Response to questions by The Net Zero, Energy and Transport Committee regarding the new Circular Economy Scotland Bill – August 2023

Met4Tech Joint Comments to Environment Agency – Call for Evidence EV Batteries Resource Framework April-June 2022

Met4Tech Joint Comments to UK Foreign Affairs Committee – Feb 2023

Met4Tech Joint Comments to BEIS Net Zero Consultation – Oct 2022

Recommendations to BEIS on Mineral Exploration Rights – July 2022

Policy papers briefing notes provided into UK Critical Minerals Strategy – June 2022

Met4Tech Joint Comments to BEIS Advanced Materials Call – March 2022

UK Parliament POST brief on Mining and the Sustainability of Metals – Feb 2022

Note for Defra about the opportunities for developing the former UK mining sites – Feb 2022

NICER Programme – Defra 2050 Timeline Exercise – Nov 2021

Extent to which WTO rules impact upon Critical Materials’ security; and types of Policy Interventions by national governments within context of World Trade Law – Oct 2021

Safety of Second Life Batteries in Domestic Battery Energy Storage Systems – Oct 2021

House of Lords Science and Technology Committee Inquiry on ‘Role of batteries and fuel cells in achieving Net Zero’ – July 2021

Met4Tech Joint Comments to Defra Waste Consultation – June 2021

1 Policy Commission Report on Securing Technology-Critical Metals for Britain – April 2021



Ensuring a Circular Economy Roadmap for technology metals (2022) The Innovation Platform, Issue 12. pp 136- 137 Pettit C., Wall F., Petavratzi E., Cavoski A., and Lee R.

The Circular Economy: A View from the Front. (2022) Wall F. et al. ​

The Trans-shipment of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles Under the Basel Convention (2020) Environmental Law and Management Vol 32​. A Bauckham and E Beardsley (under the supervision of R Lee and J Ahuja

Net-zero Solutions and Research Priorities in the 2020s (2021)

Ainalis, Daniel and Bardhan, Ronita and Bell, Keith and Cebon, David and Czerniak, Mike and Farmer, J. Doyne and Fitzgerland, Shaun and Galkowski, Krzysztof and Grimshaw, Samuel and Harper, Gavin and Hunt, Hugh and Jennings, Neil and Keshav, Srinivasan and Mackie, Erik and Maroto-Valer, Mercedes and Michalopoulou, Eleni and Reay, David and Seddon, Nathalie and Smith, Stephen M. and Smith, Tristan and Simpson, Kate and Stranks, Samuel D. and Tennyson, Elizabeth M. and Uekert, Taylor and Vera-Morales, Maria and Woodcock, James

Addressing the Climate Challenge (2021) 

Acton, Joe ; Anderson, Paul ; Andres, Lauren ; Angus, Michael ; Amor, Peter ; Arrowsmith, Jane (Editor) ; Asmelash, Henok ; Bartington, Suzanne (Editor) ; Bengtsson, Fredrik ; Bhullar, Lovleen ; Bloss, William ; Bonet, Berta ; Börner, Susanne ; O Bonsu, Nana ; Bryson, John R. ; Burns, Victoria ; Burrows, Alexander ; Calvert, Charles ; Cassidy, Nigel ; Cavoski, Aleksandra ; Chadyiwa, Martha ; Chapman, Henry ; Chapman, Lee ; Cockram, Matthew ; Degendardt, Lisa ; Dickinson, David ; Ding, Yulong ; Dobrzynski, Dion ; Dolo, Mapaseka ; Dora, John ; Ercolani, Marco ; Ersoy, Aksel ; Farag, Hisham ; Ferranti, Emma ; Fisher, Rachel ; Freer, Martin ; Goldmann, Nicola ; Goode, Charles Edward ; Greenham, Sarah ; Gulati, Steve ; Hadfield-Hill, Sophie ; Harper, Gavin ; Hegerl, Gabi ; Hillmansen, Stuart ; Holmes, John ; Huang, Jinhui Jeanne ; Huser, Camille ; Jackson, Rob ; Jaroszweski, David ; Jefferson, Ian ; Johnson, Jack ; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat ; Kelly-Akinnuoye, Fisola ; Kettles, Graeme ; Kraftl, Peter ; Krause, Stefan ; Leckebusch, Gregor C. ; Lee, Robert ; Lockwood, Beck (Editor) ; Lohse, Johannes ; Luna Diez, Estrella ; Lynch, Iseult (Editor) ; MacKenzie, Rob ; Maddison, David ; Makepeace, Joshua ; Mann, Victoria ; Marino, Rodrigo ; Mavronicola, Natasa ; McDonald, Megan ; McGowan, Kate (Editor) ; Metje, Nicole ; Ng, Kelvin ; Nicol, Jane ; O’Sullivan, Cliona ; Phalkey, Neelambari ; Prestwood, Emily ; Pyatt, Nick ; Quinn, Andrew ; Radcliffe, Jonathan (Editor) ; Ravi, Manoj ; Reardon, Louise ; Reeder, Tim ; O’Regan, Paul ; Remedios, Louisa ; Roberts, Jon ; Rogers, Chris ; Rungskunroch, Panrawee ; van Schaik, Willem ; Swan, Jeremy (Editor) ; Thomson, Ian ; Toft, Helen (Editor) ; Tong, Jiadong ; Botello Villagrana, Fernando ; Walton, Allan ; Wason, Ceara (Editor) ; Weir, Catherine ; Wood, Ruth ; Zhong, Jian.  University of Birmingham.

The Geopolitics of Cobalt (2021) American Affairs, V(4), pp. 62-79. Harper, G.D.J.